Complex apical root anatomy presents as the most profound challenge to clinical endodontic technique. Addressing ramifications at the apical terminus requires special consideration and skill. This 3-minute excerpt from my 2 hour clinical endodontic presentation given on August 11, 2012 describes Herb Schilder's principles of passive, precurved hand file use along with copious irrigation. It is this author’s opinion that the longer time one spends in a complex root performing recapitulations with precurved hand files, the better the result.
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